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Brief Introduction to 400G Optical Transceiver Module

June 21,2023

400G optical transceiver module is mainly used for photoelectric conversion. The electrical signal is converted into an optical signal at the sending end, and then transmitted through an optical fiber. At the receiving end, the optical signal is converted into an electrical signal. The transmission rate of the 400G optical transceiver module is up to 400 gigabits per second (Gbps), which was born to adapt to the network market from 100M, 1G, 25G, 40G to 100G, 400G, and even 1T. It is used in a variety of high-performance applications, such as data centers, high-performance computing (HPC), and telecom networks.

There are two main types of 400G transceivers:
QSFP-DD transceivers: These transceivers use the QSFP-DD form factor, which is a double-density version of the QSFP form factor. This allows for more optical lanes to be packed into a single module, which increases the overall bandwidth.

OSFP transceivers: These transceivers use the OSFP form factor, which is a newer and larger form factor than QSFP-DD. OSFP transceivers can provide higher bandwidth and longer reach than QSFP-DD transceivers.

The technology of 400G optical transceiver module mainly includes PAM4 modulation technology, COB packaging technology, DSP digital signal processing technology, microwave integrated circuit technology, high-speed electrical interface technology, etc.

PAM4 modulation technology is the core technology for 400G transceivers to achieve high-speed transmission. It adopts a 4-level pulse amplitude modulation method, which extends the traditional binary digital signal modulation to 4 levels, and realizes a 400G transmission rate.

COB packaging technology is a new type of packaging technology, which uses the chip to be directly soldered on the substrate, without the need for a package shell, and can achieve higher signal transmission rates and smaller volumes.

DSP digital signal processing technology is a technology used in 400G optical modules to realize signal processing and decoding. It can perform operations such as modulation, demodulation, and error correction on optical signals to improve the transmission rate and signal quality of optical modules.

Microwave integrated circuit technology is a high-frequency circuit design technology that can integrate multiple circuits on one chip to achieve high-frequency circuit design with high speed, low power consumption, and small size.

High-speed electrical interface technology is a technology for connecting 400G optical modules to external devices. It includes various interface types, such as QSFP-DD, OSFP, etc., to realize the connection and data transmission between different devices.

Application Scenarios
The 400G optical transceiver module is suitable for operators' broadband access, broadband network, data center interconnection, cloud computing and other fields. In terms of data centers, with the development of cloud computing and big data technology, the requirements for scalability, reliability and low latency of data centers are getting higher and higher, and 400G optical modules can meet these requirements. In addition, 400G optical modules are also suitable for scenarios such as high-speed transmission and long-distance transmission.

Development Trend
With the increasing demand of data centers, enterprise networks and telecom operators, the 400G optical module market will continue to grow. With the continuous advancement of technology, the cost of 400G optical modules will continue to decrease, while performance will continue to improve. In the future, the application scenarios of 400G optical modules will be further expanded, including the Internet of Things, 5G and other fields.